Volume 2, Issue 1, June 2018, Page: 15-19
FOXM 1 Expression in Breast Carcinoma and Correlation with Histopathological Staging and Grading
Rafah Mohamed Jaffar Alkhateeb, Imamain Kadhymien Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq
Salim Rasheed Alaubaidy, Pathology Department & Forensic Medicine, College of Medicine/University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
Received: Mar. 13, 2018;       Accepted: Apr. 11, 2018;       Published: May 17, 2018
DOI: 10.11648/j.plm.20180201.13      View  654      Downloads  20
FOXM1 (Forkhead box protein M1) promoted EMT (Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition) in breast cancer by binding and activation of the promoter of SLUG gene. that FOXM1 promotes breast cancer metastases by activation of the TGF-β pathway with through interaction SMAD3 (this prevented E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase transcriptional intermediary factor 1 γ [TIF1 γ] binding to SMAD3 and protected SMAD4 from ubiquitination) that leads to stabilization of the SMAD3/SMAD4 complex. The study samples included seventy four formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissue blocks which have been diagnosed as forty four cases of breast carcinoma and their lymph nodes. In the present study from 74 total cases, 46 cases (62.6%) were showing FOXM1 marker positive while 28 cases (37.8%) were showing negative immunohistochemistry for FOXM1 marker. Sub classification of malignant cases, 16 malignant breast cancer cases (36.4%) showed no FOXM1 expression, while 12 malignant cases (27.3%) were strongly positive for FOXM1 expression. There is significant correlation between breast carcinoma grade, stage and FOXM1 expression.
Breast Tumor, Breast Cancer, FOXM1 Expression
To cite this article
Rafah Mohamed Jaffar Alkhateeb, Salim Rasheed Alaubaidy, FOXM 1 Expression in Breast Carcinoma and Correlation with Histopathological Staging and Grading, Pathology and Laboratory Medicine. Vol. 2, No. 1, 2018, pp. 15-19. doi: 10.11648/j.plm.20180201.13
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Susan G. Komen. What is breast cancer? Fact for life. 2016; 2/16.
Takahashi R, Takeshita F, Fujiwara T, Ono M, Ochiya T. Cancer stem cells in breast cancer. Cancers 2011; 3: 1311-1328.
Clarke MF, Dick JE, Dirks PB, Eaves CJ, Jamieson CHM, Jones DL, Visvader J, Weissman IL, Wahl GM. Cancer StemCells-Perspectives on Current Status and Future Directions:AACR Workshop on Cancer Stem Cells. Cancer Res 2006; 66: 9339-9344.
Chan SW, Lim CJ, Guo K, Ng CP, Lee I, Hunziker W, Zeng Q, Hong W. A role for TAZ in migration, invasion, and tumorigenesis of breast cancer cells. Cancer Res. Apr. 2008; 68 (8):2592–2598.
Ye H, Kelly TF, Samadani U, Lim L, Rubio S, Overdier DG, Roebuck KA, Costa RH. "Hepatocyte nuclear factor 3/fork head homolog 11 is expressed in proliferating epithelial and mesenchymal cells of embryonic and adult tissues". Mol. Cell. Biol. 1997; 17 (3): 1626–41.
Vincent Shen. "2010 Molecule of the Year". BioTechniques.
Laoukili J, Kooistra MR, Brás A, Kauw J, Kerkhoven RM, Morrison A, Clevers H, Medema RH. FoxM1 is required for execution of the mitotic programme and chromosome stability. Nat. Cell Biol. 2005; 7 (2): 126–36.
Pilarsky, C., Wenzig, M., Specht, T., Saeger, H. D., and Grutzmann, R. Identification and validation of commonly overexpressed genes in solid tumors by comparison of microarray data. Neoplasia. 2004; 6, 744–750.
Nakamura, S., Hirano, I., Okinaka, K., Takemura, T., Yokota, D., Ono, T., et al. The FOXM1 transcriptional factor promotes the proliferation of leukemia cells through modulation of cell cycle progression in acute myeloid leukemia. Carcinogenesis. 2010; 31, 2012–2021.
Kwok, J. M., Peck, B., Monteiro, L. J., Schwenen, H. D., Millour, J., Coombes, R. C., et al. FOXM1 confers acquired cisplatin resistance in breast cancer cells. Mol. Cancer Res. 2010; 8, 24–34.
Zhang, N., Wu, X., Yang, L., Xiao, F., Zhang, H., Zhou, A., et al. FoxM1 inhibition sensitizes resistant glioblastoma cells to temozolomide by downregulating the expression of DNA-repair gene Rad51. Clin. Cancer Res. 2010a; 18, 5961–5971.
Halasi, M., and Gartel, A. L. Suppression of FOXM1 sensitizes human cancer cells to cell death induced by DNA-damage. PLoS ONE. 2012a; 7:e31761.
Xue, W., Zender, L., Miething, C., Dickins, R. A., Hernando, E., Krizhanovsky, V., et al. Senescence and tumour clearance is triggered by p53 restoration in murine liver carcinomas. Nature. 2007;-445, 656–660.
Radhakrishnan, S. K., Bhat, U. G., Hughes, D. E., Wang, I. C., Costa, R. H., and Gartel, A. L. Identification of a chemical inhibitor of the oncogenic transcription factor forkhead box M1. Cancer Res. 2006; 66, 9731–9735.
Myatt, S. S., and Lam, E. W. The emerging roles of forkhead box (Fox) proteins in cancer. Nat. Rev. Cancer. 2007; 7, 847–859.
Pilarsky, C., Wenzig, M., Specht, T., Saeger, H. D., and Grutzmann, R. Identification and validation of commonly overexpressed genes in solid tumors by comparison of microarray data. Neoplasia. 2004; 6, 744–750.
Wonsey DR, Follettie MT. "Loss of the forkhead transcription factor FoxM1 causes centrosome amplification and mitotic catastrophe". Cancer Res. 2005; 65 (12): 5181–9.
C. Yang, H. Chen, G. Tan et al., “FOXM1 promotes the epithelial to mesenchymal transition by stimulating the transcription of Slug in human breast cancer,” Cancer Letters. 2013; vol. 340, no. 1, pp. 104–112.
J. Xue, X. Lin, W.-T. Chiu et al., “Sustained activation of SMAD3/SMAD4 by FOXM1 promotes TGF-β-dependent cancer metastasis,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 2014; vol. 124, no. 2, pp. 564–579.
J. Laoukili, M. Alvarez Fernandez, R. H Medema." FOXM1 (forkhead box M1)", Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology, 2008-2.
Jeong-Ju Lee, Hee Jin Lee, Byung-Ho Son, Sung-Bae Kim, Jin-Hee Ahn, Seung Do Ahn, Eun Yoon Cho and Gyungyub Gong. Expression of FOXM1 and related proteins in breast cancer molecular subtypes. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PATHOLOGY. 2016; 97, 170–177.
Jing zhang, kundong zhang, lisheng zhou, weidong wu, tao jun cao, kejian huang, zhengjun qiu and chen huang. Expression and potential correlation among Forkhead box protein M1, Caveolin‑1 and E‑cadherin in colorectal cancer. ONCOLOGY LETTERS. 2016; 12; 2381-2388.
Browse journals by subject