2019, Volume 3
2018, Volume 2
2017, Volume 1

Volume 2, Issue 1, June 2018, Page: 15-19
FOXM 1 Expression in Breast Carcinoma and Correlation with Histopathological Staging and Grading
Rafah Mohamed Jaffar Alkhateeb, Imamain Kadhymien Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq
Salim Rasheed Alaubaidy, Pathology Department & Forensic Medicine, College of Medicine/University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
Received: Mar. 13, 2018;       Accepted: Apr. 11, 2018;       Published: May 17, 2018
DOI: 10.11648/j.plm.20180201.13      View  951      Downloads  33
FOXM1 (Forkhead box protein M1) promoted EMT (Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition) in breast cancer by binding and activation of the promoter of SLUG gene. that FOXM1 promotes breast cancer metastases by activation of the TGF-β pathway with through interaction SMAD3 (this prevented E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase transcriptional intermediary factor 1 γ [TIF1 γ] binding to SMAD3 and protected SMAD4 from ubiquitination) that leads to stabilization of the SMAD3/SMAD4 complex. The study samples included seventy four formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissue blocks which have been diagnosed as forty four cases of breast carcinoma and their lymph nodes. In the present study from 74 total cases, 46 cases (62.6%) were showing FOXM1 marker positive while 28 cases (37.8%) were showing negative immunohistochemistry for FOXM1 marker. Sub classification of malignant cases, 16 malignant breast cancer cases (36.4%) showed no FOXM1 expression, while 12 malignant cases (27.3%) were strongly positive for FOXM1 expression. There is significant correlation between breast carcinoma grade, stage and FOXM1 expression.
Breast Tumor, Breast Cancer, FOXM1 Expression
To cite this article
Rafah Mohamed Jaffar Alkhateeb, Salim Rasheed Alaubaidy, FOXM 1 Expression in Breast Carcinoma and Correlation with Histopathological Staging and Grading, Pathology and Laboratory Medicine. Vol. 2, No. 1, 2018, pp. 15-19. doi: 10.11648/j.plm.20180201.13
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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